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Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of figures ............................................................................................ 9
List of tables ............................................................................................... 11
Acknowledgments ..................................................................................... 15
Abbreviations ............................................................................................. 17


1. Introduction
1.1. Introduction to the study ............................................................... 21
1.2. The language situation .................................................................. 23
1.3. Objectives of this investigation ..................................................... 25
1.4. Theoretical framework .................................................................. 26
1.5. Outline of the study ....................................................................... 28


2. Review of the Literature
2.1. Conditionality ................................................................................ 33
2.1.1. Conditionality, hypotheticality and conditional sentences ... 33
2.1.2. If-sentences: definition and parts ....................................... 35
2.1.3. Verb forms: tense and mood .............................................. 36
2.1.4. Typology ............................................................................. 38
2.1.5. Alternatives to the expression of conditionality ................ 39
2.1.6. Variation ............................................................................. 40
2.1.6.1. Diachronic variation ............................................. 40
2.1.6.2. Synchronic variation ............................................ 42
2.1.7. Acquisition studies ............................................................. 47
2.1.8. Conclusions ........................................................................ 48


3. Social Context
3.1. Introduction ................................................................................... 51
3.2. U.S. Hispanic diversity ................................................................. 51
3.3. Hispanics in Texas and in Houston ............................................... 54
3.4. Spanish for heritage learners ......................................................... 56
3.4.1. Definitions .......................................................................... 58
3.4.2. Historical foundations of SHL programs ........................... 60
3.4.3. Diversity ............................................................................. 61
3.4.4. Pedagogical issues .............................................................. 61
3.4.5. The prestige variety ............................................................ 66
3.4.6. Bidialectalism ..................................................................... 67


4. Methodology
4.1. Introduction ................................................................................... 71
4.2. Research design ............................................................................. 71
4.2.1. Preliminary studies ............................................................. 71
4.2.2. The study of conditionality ................................................ 75
4.3. Participants .................................................................................... 76
4.4. Instrumentation ............................................................................. 79
4.4.1. Short paragraphs ................................................................. 79
4.4.2. Cloze-type test .................................................................... 80
4.4.3. Acceptability judgment task ............................................... 80
4.4.4. Peer interviews ................................................................... 81
4.4.5. Background questionnaires ................................................ 81
4.5. Procedure ....................................................................................... 81
4.5.1. Written data collection ....................................................... 81
4.5.2. Oral data collection ............................................................ 82
4.5.3. Data coding and analysis .................................................... 83
4.6. Summary of the methodology ....................................................... 84


5. Findings
5.1. Introduction ................................................................................... 87
5.2. Study 1: Grammatical accuracy .................................................... 87
5.3. Study 2: Different tasks ................................................................ 101
5.4. Study 3: Oral data ......................................................................... 106
5.4.1. Contexts .............................................................................. 106
5.4.2. [-PAST] contexts ................................................................ 109
5.4.3. [+PAST] contexts ............................................................... 112
5.5. Acceptability judgment ................................................................. 114
5.6. Longitudinal study ........................................................................ 115


6. Discussion and conclusions
6.1. Introduction ................................................................................... 123
6.2. Summary of the findings and discussion ...................................... 123

6.3. Pedagogical implications of the findings to the teaching of Spanish
to students of Hispanic heritage .................................................... 134
6.3.1. What to teach? .................................................................... 134
6.3.2. How to teach? ..................................................................... 136
6.3.3. When to teach and for how long? ...................................... 136
6.4. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research 137
6.5. Final comments ............................................................................. 138


Appendices
Appendix 1a: Short Paragraphs ........................................................... 141
Appendix 1b: Cloze-type Test .............................................................. 143
Appendix 1c: Acceptability Judgment ................................................. 144
Appendix 2: Guide for Interviews ....................................................... 145
Appendix 3: Student Information Sheet ............................................... 147
Appendix 4: Spanish Courses .............................................................. 149

References .................................................................................................. 151
Index ........................................................................................................... 163